Omaha to Promontory

Union Pacific

Union Pacific

Electing to forgo beginning construction with a costly and time-consuming bridge over the Missouri River, Union Pacific broke ground in Omaha Dec. 3, 1863. Despite this early start, rails were not laid until July 10, 1865, and then only reached Omaha's outskirts. But in 1866, the Civil War was over and an influx of labor, materials and money allowed the railroad to push through Nebraska and into the mountains in southern Wyoming, crossing the continental divide at Sherman Summit April 5, 1868. By 1869, Union Pacific had pushed into Utah, racing for the Nevada border. By May 1869, Union Pacific had constructed eight bridges, including the 700-foot-long Dale Creek trestle in Wyoming, and four tunnels: three in Echo Canyon, Utah, and one in Wyoming. Harsh Plains winters, brutal heat, battles with the Lakota and Cheyenne over land, and the omnipresent need for supplies were constant companions for Union Pacific crews, and yet, in just seven years, 1,086 miles of track existed between the Missouri River and Promontory Summit, Utah.

Omaha, NE

The communities of Council Bluffs, Iowa, and Omaha, Nebraska, would forever be changed by a single decision made by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. That was the year the president named Council Bluffs as the eastern terminus for Union Pacific, altering that community and Omaha — and, in fact, every community — along the railroad’s western path.

Despite this presidential declaration, there were other forces at play. Union Pacific's first vice president and general manager, Thomas C. "Doc" Durant, used his influence to make Omaha — and not Council Bluffs, Iowa — the actual starting point. Union Pacific marked the occasion with a groundbreaking ceremony at the Omaha settlement in Nebraska Territory Dec. 2, 1863. A lack of funding delayed the project’s beginning for a short while, but on July 10, 1865, the first rail was finally laid. In 1872, the two communities were united for the first time when a railroad bridge was completed across the Missouri River.

The railroad's effect on both communities has been extraordinary. Council Bluffs grew from a small, isolated Missouri River town to Iowa's fifth largest city. The same robust growth has taken place in Omaha. Settlers and immigrants poured into the area beginning more than a century ago, and today this vibrant city has a population of nearly 500,000. This growth was spurred in great part by the passage of the Homestead Act in 1862, and the transcontinental railroad’s completion in 1869. Omaha has been Union Pacific's operational headquarters since the 1860s, and its 19-story headquarters in the downtown area employs nearly 4,000 employees. Omaha also is home to UP’s Harriman Dispatching Center, one of the country's largest and most technologically advanced dispatching facilities.

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Fremont, NE

Located in central interior Nebraska, Fremont is named after Gen. John C. Fremont, who helped map out great parts of the West. In fact, the state likely owes its name to Fremont. In reports written in the 1840s to the secretary of war, Fremont referred to the Platte River valley by the Omaha Tribe's word — Nìbtháska — Land of the Flat Waters, or the Flat Water. The secretary suggested the anglicized version of the word, Nebraska, as an appropriate name for the new territory.

Fremont was incorporated as a town in 1858, but as early as 1853 Gen. Grenville Dodge, Union Pacific's chief engineer, suggested Fremont should be a priority for railroad crews building out West. Indeed, on Jan. 24, 1866, Union Pacific completed its tracks and service was established out of the Fremont. The town served as the winter quarters for the railroad's construction crews through that first season, and by 1876 Fremont had grown into an agricultural center on Union Pacific's main line, responsible for exporting more than 42 million pounds of grain annually.

On Jan. 26, 1904, Union Pacific and Chicago & North Western finally constructed a Union Station in Fremont costing $45,000. Little did the builders know that less than 20 years later President Warren G. Harding's funeral train would pass through Fremont. Over the next 60 years and beyond, Fremont would remain a switching point for Union Pacific, Chicago & North Western, and Burlington Northern railroads.

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Schuyler, NE

Union Pacific arrived in Schuyler, Nebraska, May 3, 1866. Until that time, the area was known only as Shell Creek Station, and the first buildings — a small wooden depot and section house — weren't built until two years later. In 1869, the town was officially founded and platted by Union Pacific employees H.M. Hoxie and Webster Snyder.

The railroad continued to shape the newly formed town. John J. Riley, Union Pacific section boss, built the first house in Schuyler, and later became mayor of the small town. It was named after Schuyler Colfax, the vice president from 1869 to 1873 under President Ulysses S. Grant. By the 1870s, Schuyler became the first town in western Nebraska where cattle could be boarded on the railroad going east. In fact, the first herd of cattle arrived from Texas in June 1870 and by August more than 20,000 head were awaiting transport east on Union Pacific.

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Columbus, NE

Settlers from Columbus, Ohio, founded the area known as Columbus, Nebraska, on May 28, 1856. In those early years, many of the settlers were English, German, Swiss, Irish, Scandinavian, Welsh and Polish. They urged their family and friends back in their native lands to join them. Nine years later, the population had grown significantly, and the area was incorporated as a town. Those early settlers chose the site because its location put it in line to be the spot of the nation's first transcontinental railroad.

The first winter in Columbus was hard, and the town's early settlers survived by skating 100 miles down the Platte River to Omaha for supplies. Before Union Pacific began service in Columbus on June 2, 1866, the largest industry in town was the sale of buffalo robes to immigrants on the western trails through Nebraska. Priced at just $1, the sale of these buffalo robes led to the wholesale decimation of the Great Plains buffalo herd, and gave rise to the raids on settlements east of Columbus by the Sioux, who vigorously pushed back against the destruction of their food supply.

Once Union Pacific had a presence in Columbus, the town quickly became a service point for the railroad, providing supplies, fuel and water during the construction of the transcontinental railroad. In late 1866, the town was the first camp for Union Pacific excursionists traveling to the 100th meridian in what would later become Cozad, Nebraska. By the turn of the 20th century, the railroad had finished double track improvements from Omaha to Columbus. On April 27, 1939, Cecil B. DeMille's train stopped at the Columbus Depot while on its way to Omaha for the premier of the movie Union Pacific, starring Barbara Stanwyck. Both she and DeMille addressed the crowd gathered on the platform.

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Central City, NE

Established in 1858 by the Western Stage Company, Central City, Nebraska, was first known as Lone Tree Station. It was named for a huge, lone, cottonwood tree that pioneers used as a landmark during their travels. As they passed the tree, they would carve a date or their name in the bark.

In 1866, an actual county seat was established in Lone Tree, due in large part to the railroad tracks being laid by Union Pacific through the area. Two years later, the Nebraska Territorial Legislature established Merrick County, and J.H. Berryman constructed the first building there, which functioned as a general store, hotel, bar, courthouse and his home.

In 1875, a petition was circulated through the Merrick County Court requesting Lone Tree's name be changed to Central City. Those promoting the change argued that Lone Tree sounded desolate and poor, which would discourage other settlers from moving into the area. Opponents argued that Lone Tree conjured up the image of a beautiful, peaceful place. The name-changers prevailed and on June 30, 1875, the name was officially changed to Central City. The new name was meant to illustrate the city's strategic location within Nebraska's agricultural belt.

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The Pawnee NationTraditional Pawnee pattern

The railroad's arrival and Western settlement expansion caused great changes in the Native American communities calling this region home for thousands of years. These communities endured great upheaval, surviving in spite of harsh conditions and a changing cultural landscape. This is their story, as told by Tribal members.

The Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma (Pawnee Nation) has a long and proud history spanning more than 700 years. Early in the 18th century, more than 60,000 members of the Pawnee Tribe inhabited the area along the North Platte River in Nebraska. The Tribe then, as it is now, was composed of four distinct bands: the Chaui "Grand," the Kitkehahki "Republican," the Pitahawirata "Tappage" and the Skidi "Wolf."

The Pawnees, classified as a "friendly tribe" by the U.S. government, were men and women of great courage and endurance. Some of the Pawnee warrior battles fought to preserve lives, lands and possessions were considered legendary.

The latter 1860s were the time when the number of officially recorded engagements with the Indians reached a peak. The transcontinental railroad was under construction across the Plains, and the construction crews suffered harassment from Sioux and Cheyennes. The Pawnees, under the command of Major Frank North, patrolled the rail line from central Nebraska to southeastern Wyoming, skirmishing with Sioux and Cheyenne raiding parties and recovering stolen horses and mules. From one point of view, the story of the Pawnee Scouts was one of consistent success — an outstanding example of the exploitation of intertribal animosities, and of Indians themselves, for the purposes of an alien people. Major North and his military superiors had a point, for the Pawnees had every reason to wish to strike back against their enemies and to desire an alliance with the stronger power that could make retaliation possible. They had received no favors from the Sioux and had no reason to expect any. The scouts enjoyed adventure, suffered few casualties, recovered self-esteem battered by both Sioux and "civilization," and obtained economic benefits for themselves and their people. These things were meaningful to them in ways their would-be civilizers could not imagine.

After encroachment by settlers, the Pawnees ceded their territory to the U.S. government in the 1870s and were removed from Nebraska to what is now Pawnee County, Oklahoma, in 1875. The Pawnee Indian Agency and an Indian boarding school named the Pawnee Industrial School were established just east of the present site of the City of Pawnee. The school, affectionately known as "Gravy U," was closed in 1958 and the land was returned to the Pawnee Nation in 1968. Many of the former Industrial School buildings now serve as Tribal offices and as a home for the Pawnee Nation College. The area is on the National Register as a Historic District.

Today, the number of Tribal enrolled members is over 3,200, and Pawnees can be found in all areas of the United States as well as foreign countries within many walks of life. Pawnees take much pride in their ancestral heritage. They are noted in history for a tribal religion rich in myth, symbolism and elaborate rites.

The Pawnee Nation supports many other activities including honor dances, Native American church meetings, hand games and sporting events. The Pawnee Indian veterans also host a Memorial Day Dance, a Veterans Day Dance and a Christmas Day Dance. The Pawnee Indian Veterans Homecoming and Powwow occurs the weekend that falls closest to the Fourth of July.

Authored by: John Micheal Knife Chief
Tribal Historic Preservation Officer Cultural Resources Division

Grand Island, NE

In 1857, a group of 35 people — mainly German immigrants — left Davenport, Iowa, to settle an area in central Nebraska. French fur traders had identified a location they named "La Grande Island" on the Platte River and by July 1857 the settlers had arrived and soon were building log houses made from ash, elm and cottonwood timber.

Union Pacific arrived in July of 1866 and laid out an entirely new town slightly inland from the island. The railroad marked the new town as the end of the first division point on the fledgling railroad. From there, it built the first depot, and soon followed with a combination depot and hotel. Union Pacific and the new transcontinental route contributed significantly to the growth of Grand Island.

By 1880, Union Pacific had established machine shops and a roundhouse in Grand Island and provided the town with water piped in from wells it had dug along the tracks near the river. On June 4, 1980, Grand Island was struck by a massive tornado. Union Pacific came to the town's aid, sending more than 130 employees and 50 pieces of heavy equipment to help in the clean up. The railroad also provided bunk cars, dining cars and supplies to offer comfort to the survivors.

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Wood River, NE

The original town of Wood River, named for the tree-lined river north of the area, was platted around a station established by Union Pacific in 1866. Before that, the stage stop was known as "White Cloud," and it contained a tiny log-house that operated as the area's first post office.

Between 1844 and 1866, thousands of emigrants, gold seekers and Mormons moved west through the Platte Valley. The first settlers along the Wood River — including the Moore family, James Jackson and Joseph E. Johnson — operated road ranches to serve travelers. Jackson opened a store in Wood River in 1865.

After the rails were laid in 1866, a depot and boarding house, called "Wood River Station," was built near Moore's road ranch. Once the tracks were completed, migration took off. Trainloads of people, Civil War veterans and second-generation colonists from the eastern states, arrived to take up homesteads. By 1873, the area was known as western Hall County, and was busy, often compared to a three-ring circus. The towns of Wood River, Cameron (on the Prairie Creek six miles northwest), and Alda all were involved. The UP, in an effort to "centralize their depots," moved the Wood River Station two miles east. Thirty or so buildings, including the station, post office and Jackson's store, were put on skids and pulled down the railroad track by teams of horses to the new location. In 1874, Union Pacific platted this new location and the present town of Wood River was established.

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Gibbon, NE

The Gibbon Switch — a rail siding — was built in 1866 as part of Union Pacific's construction. The switch was given its name in honor of General John Gibbon, a U.S. Army officer who had fought in the Civil War.

Five years later in 1871, the town of Gibbon was established. Just prior to that, the area was inhabited by the friendly Pawnee tribe. They were removed and placed on reservations by the U.S. government, and the Soldiers' Free Homestead Temperance Colony from Ohio purchased the land from Union Pacific for $600. The newly created town saw settlers arrive on a Union Pacific emigrant train.

In 1872, the St. Joseph and Denver Railway constructed the Gibbon Cut-off. Seven years later it would come under ownership of Union Pacific. This cut-off, which eventually provided direct access to Kansas City, was officially known as the Hastings Branch.

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Kearney, NE

One of the most notable facts about Kearney is its location precisely halfway between the east and west coasts of the United States — 1,173 miles from both Boston and San Francisco. It's not surprising that it eventually became a junction point for Union Pacific, Missouri Pacific and the Burlington Northern railroads.

According to a history of the city, the word "Kearney" comes from Fort Kearny, named after Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny, who joined the Army during the War of 1812 and died in 1848. One possible reason why there is an extra "e" in the name of the town is simple spelling error made by the post office. By the time it was discovered, no correction was made and the town was incorporated as "Kearney" with the extra "e" in 1873.

Earlier, in 1848, Fort Kearny was established and offered protection to scores of pioneers traveling west on the Oregon Trail.

For Union Pacific construction crews in 1866, Kearney represented a milestone for the first section of road from Omaha. The original Union Pacific station was located at Buda, east of present day Kearney. With the railroad coming through, settlement began a few years later in 1871 when the Rev. and Mrs. Collins entered a homestead claim. They lived in a dwelling called "the Junction House," which contained the first post office. The area began to grow quickly thereafter, and by 1873, the year it was incorporated, Kearney had 245 residents and more than 20 buildings.

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Lexington, NE

The town now known as Lexington began as a frontier trading post in 1860. In 1864, it was established as Plum Creek, named after the creek on the south side of its border.

The first settlers in Plum Creek were Daniel Freeman and his family. They established a bakery and a trading post right across from a little stage station. Union Pacific came through in September 1866, but a year later, tragedy struck. A section crew was attacked by a group of Cheyenne warriors. The three men on the handcar scattered and hid but not before one of them — William Thompson — was scalped. He managed to retrieve his scalp and make it back to Plum Creek. Eventually he found his way to Omaha where he tried to have the scalp reattached. That attempt failed, and he donated the tanned scalp to the Omaha Public Library.

The Cheyenne warriors, under the command of Chief Turkey Leg, derailed a supply train in July of 1867, killing both Engineer Brookes Bowers and Fireman Hendershot. The train was looted and the Pawnee Scouts were dispatched to search for the Cheyenne. Days later, the Cheyenne attacked the search party, but were repelled. During the melee, two Cheyenne prisoners were taken — a young boy and a woman. Later the next year, in 1868, during negotiations for a treaty with the Brule Sioux in North Platte, Chief Turkey Leg sent a delegation to offer the release of six white settlers in return for the Cheyenne woman and boy who had been captured. It turned out that the boy was his nephew. The exchange occurred with all captives being returned unharmed.

In 1874, Plum Creek was incorporated as a village and in 1889 was purportedly renamed Lexington, in honor of the Battle of Lexington, the beginning of the Revolutionary War.

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Cozad, NE

It's hard to over-emphasize the significance of Cozad, Nebraska, in the story of Union Pacific's march westward. By crossing the 100th meridian line — an invisible, yet critical geographic marker — near Cozad on October 6, 1866, Union Pacific was guaranteed the right to continue westward construction, as stipulated in the Pacific Railway Act of 1862. This milestone meant that Union Pacific could proceed west to meet the Central Pacific railroad, and in the process continue to receive the land grants on either side of the tracks and the per-mile subsidy loaned to them by the U.S. government.

Still, in the wake of construction delays and doubts about its completion, Union Pacific Vice President Thomas Durant wisely figured that the railroad needed to convince investors and the public that real progress was being made. He also wanted to prove to government officials that the funding being provided would be a wise investment. Durant devised a publicity event, aptly named the "100th Meridian Excursion." This event would gather 200 reporters, politicians and invited guests in Omaha on October 23, 1866, and transport them, by rail, the 247 miles west to Cozad, the site of the 100th meridian.

But Durant made sure this wasn't just any trip. Two complete trains had been assembled for the excursion, the first carrying an advance party of workers and Union Pacific executives to prepare the route. The second train consisted of nine cars that would carry the excursionists, including several new Pullman "Palace" cars. The guests in the Pullman cars dined on sumptuous catered foods from Omaha, as well as wild game hunted on the excursion route. Fine champagne and other wines and liquors flowed freely, and a contingent of Pawnee Scouts (on loan from the U.S. Army for protection through what was still considered dangerous territory) provided entertainment, including staging mock attacks and presenting a "war dance" to the guests on board.

The trip took three days, and on October 25, 1866, the excursionists finally arrived at the 100th meridian—the site that would eventually become Cozad. Durant considered the trip to be a roaring success. Government officials were satisfied with the progress being made, and the publicity surrounding the journey sufficiently piqued investors' interest, ensuring that the money needed to continue construction would be made available. So important was this milestone to the continuation of the transcontinental railroad that a sign commemorating the 100th meridian excursion still stands in Cozad today.

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The Oglala and the RailroadTraditional Oglala pattern

The railroad's arrival and Western settlement expansion caused great changes in the Native American communities calling this region home for thousands of years. These communities endured great upheaval, surviving in spite of harsh conditions and a changing cultural landscape. This is their story, as told by Tribal members.

To the Oglala Lakota, the railroad was a great mystery that brought both devastation and opportunity in a short span of 60 years. The Lakota called the railroad many different names; one is Hemani, which means "he walks, wandering or traveling." Then there's Maza Chanku, which means "iron road;" the Oglalas also called it Owa kpamni, which means "distributions." There was a drastic change in the way of life for the Oglala at the time the railroad began its invasion of the Lakota territory, which was located in the Great Plains region of the United States in the 1860s.

Because of the broken treaties and wide mistreatment of Native Americans, the Oglalas didn't trust the railroad and U.S. government for good reasons. There was much to be fearful about; for example, the Grattan Massacre in Wyoming in 1854; the Battle of Blue Water in Nebraska in 1855; the largest mass hanging in the United States, then and still today, of 38 Sioux in Mankato in 1862; and the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864. The 1860s were a time period that trust between Native nations and the United States caused heightened aggressiveness on both sides.

On April 29, 1868, leaders from the Great Plains tribes, including the Oglala chiefs Red Cloud and American Horse, signed the Fort Laramie Treaty. The treaty promised much to the Lakota, such as land, food, clothing, one doctor and a school house with a teacher for every 30 children. The treaty was eventually broken on both sides.

Sadly, the frontier forever changed because of the railroad; it brought violence, disease, alcohol, pioneers and fortune seekers. It also changed the ecosystem of the plains. The buffalo were nearly driven to extinction. Many species depended on the existence of the buffalo. The Lakota call themselves the Pte Oyate, "Buffalo Nation;" their very survival depended on the buffalo herds that thrived across the plains. Every part of the buffalo was utilized for food, clothing and shelter. White hunters, for sport and hides, killed the buffalo by the millions with access facilitated by the new rail line.

Anger, outrage and the quest to survive provoked many Oglala warriors to band together with the Cheyenne, Brule and Arapaho and fight the encroachment of expansion on the frontier. They also fought the railroad and government because there was no abundance of food or supplies for the Oglalas, as previously promised by the U.S. government.

The Oglalas had to adapt to new ways of life after the buffalo were gone. They were forced onto the Great Sioux Reservation as stipulated in the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty and depended on the U.S. government for food and supplies. In 1889, a much smaller piece of land was established for the Oglalas called the Pine Ridge Reservation, and it still exists today.

Authored by: Valery Killscrow-Copeland
Enrolled member of the Oglala Sioux Tribe
Daughter of Lester Kills Crow and granddaughter of George & Lema Kills Crow
Thanks to Myron Long Soldier, Oglala Sioux, for the Lakota words and meanings.

Gothenburg, NE

Union Pacific first passed through what would become Gothenburg, Nebraska, in August 1866. The town was founded by a Swedish immigrant named Olov Bergström in 1880 on land purchased from the railroad. Gothenburg was best known in its early days as a place to harvest ice from Lake Helen to cool refrigerator cars on the railroad. Approximately 60 carloads of ice were hauled from Lake Helen during the peak winter season.

In 1882, Union Pacific surveyors platted the area, which was settled predominately by folks from Sweden and Germany. Bergström claimed that he named the town after Gottenborg, Sweden, but when Union Pacific asked for the spelling, William Ehmen, head of the German colony, wanted it spelled Gutenburg. A compromise was made and the spelling became Gothenburg. On October 11, 1882, the first post office was founded, and three years later the town had a population of around 500 people and was incorporated as a village. A decade later it boasted nearly 1,500 residents.

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North Platte, NE

In the fall of 1866, Gen. Grenville Dodge, Union Pacific's chief engineer, set aside parcels of land for the railroad. As Union Pacific surveyors began laying out the town that would become North Platte, railroad land agents followed closely behind, selling lots priced from $25 to $250 apiece.

During the winters of 1866 and 1867, North Platte became a supply depot for Union Pacific's construction materials. The first in a series of "Hell on Wheels" towns set up shop in North Platte, then moved from town to town, following Union Pacific's construction crews.

The town was officially established in early 1867, and the following year a newly built roundhouse at North Platte was the site of a peace commission between area tribes, including the Sioux, Pawnee and Cheyenne, and U.S. government agents. In fact, in 1875, Native American tribes peacefully camped in the center of North Platte. Later that year, UP Car Department Foreman Anthony Ries was elected North Platte's first mayor, defeating C. L. Cooper, a livery stable operator and former mayor of Plattsmouth, Nebraska.

A future president of Union Pacific was born in North Platte in 1876. William Martin Jeffers was the son of an Irishman who joined the railroad at age 14 as a call boy. He climbed the ranks over a 56-year career to become clerk, timekeeper, foreman, telegrapher, dispatcher, general superintendent, operating vice president, executive vice president and finally president of Union Pacific Railroad. Jeffers was famous not only for his rise to power, but also for his commendable contributions within and beyond the railroad.

Today, his hometown of North Platte continues to be a railroad town and is home to Union Pacific's Bailey Yard, the world's largest rail classification yard.

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Hershey, NE

Although the first Union Pacific tracks were laid here in 1866, the town of Hershey wasn't organized until nearly 30 years later. That's when farmers and ranchers got together to organize a town in order to have a post office and a railroad siding from which they could transport wheat, hay, corn and potatoes — resources that were abundant in the area. Prior to this time, the closest post office was in O'Fallons, a nearby town that was an original stop on the Pony Express.

One of the original residents of Hershey was a woman by the name of Annie Guthrie. She was the widow of a railroad engineer and owned about seven acres of land in the area. That land, located just east of what is now Main Street, was platted in 1892 and the settlement of Hershey was formed. It was named in honor of J.H. Hershey, one of the owners of the Paxton & Hershey Land and Cattle Company.

In April 1909, Hershey had a population of 332 and was incorporated as a village. Union Pacific built its last depot in Hershey in 1917 as the area was becoming an active shipping point.

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Paxton, NE

Before it was Paxton — named after William A. Paxton, a prominent rancher from Omaha — this part of Nebraska was known as Alkali due to the soil's high alkaline content.

Paxton's earliest known resident was Edwin Searle, an 18-year-old Union Pacific telegraph operator. When the railroad arrived in June 1867, Searle lived in a tent next to the tracks until a tiny depot and employee living quarters were completed.

Activity increased over the next several years. In 1872, records indicate a buffalo herd, just over the hill in the North Platte valley, stretched 32 miles between O'Fallons and Ogallala. In 1875, 200 emigrant wagons passed a mile south of town on the Oregon Trail the week of June 5. And, the week of Oct. 9, 1875, seven rail cars of emigrants passed through each day.

Oddly, in August 1876, area trains were delayed several hours by — of all things — grasshoppers. Their large number darkened the sky and covered the ground, including the railroad tracks, making it impossible for trains to pass.

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Ogallala, NE

The town of Ogallala got its name from the Oglala Lakota, earlier inhabitants of this region. Among the first visitors to this part of Nebraska were trappers from St. Louis. The next were folks who followed the Oregon Trail.

On May 24, 1867, Union Pacific came through and the settlement of Ogallala began in earnest. Settlers started to follow the railroad west and cattlemen started driving their cattle to Ogallala to be shipped east or to be sold to Montana and Wyoming ranchers.

Ogallala's early history looked like it would become little more than a location for a section house and water tank for the railroad. However, between the springs of 1867 and 1868, three men arrived in the area and are responsible for redefining the destiny of Ogallala. The men were brothers Thomas and Philip Lonergan, and Louis Aufdengarten. The Lonergan brothers came to do construction work for Union Pacific, but they, and Aufdengarten, liked the area with its rolling plains, and decided to stay.

By 1876, the development of Ogallala was well underway. Stores were built to the south of the railroad tracks and fronted what was known as Railroad Street. Aufdengarten opened a general store, which was located on the corner of the intersection of this street and the trail leading south to the Platte River. The rest of the town extended along this trail. Ogallala — which was incorporated on November 25, 1884 — consisted of saloons with names like  "The Cowboy's Rest" and the "Crystal Palace."  In fact, the town became known as the "cowboy capital." Even the local cemetery takes its moniker from its inhabitants. Boot Hill, as it was known, was named for the fact that many of the early cattle rustlers there were buried with their boots on.

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Julesburg, CO

It may not be able to claim nine lives, but Julesburg had four incarnations, refusing to succumb to the trials of frontier life. In the late 1700s, the area was a favored hunting and camping ground of the Cheyenne, Sioux, Pawnee and Arapahoe. The first town of Old Julesburg was named after Jules Beni, who established a trading post near where Lodgepole Creek enters the South Platte River on the old overland stage route.

The area proved popular with pioneers headed to California and the Pikes Peak region of Colorado in search of gold. They traveled many of the trails through the area, and in 1860 Julesburg was the only stop on the Pony Express in all of Colorado.

In February 1865, Julesburg was attacked and burned by a coordinated attack of the Arapahoe, Oglala Sioux led by Red Cloud, and Cheyenne led by Big Crow. The attack was retaliation by the natives for the Sand Creek Massacre in the fall of 1864. The townspeople fled to nearby Fort Sedgwick.

The town was rebuilt four miles east, just outside the Fort Sedgwick Military Reservation boundary. In 1867, a third move was underway, this one influenced by the arrival of Union Pacific June 24, 1867, just north of the river. Julesburg moved to the rail head.

By then, the town had developed a well-deserved reputation as the "Wickedest City in the West." Saloons and gambling houses dotted the landscape and did a thriving business as the town's population soared to nearly 5,000. It's said that of the 1,200 building in the town, at least 900 were devoted to vice of some kind. When the railroad tracks stretched further west, Julesburg remained an important shipping point.

In 1881, a Union Pacific branch line was built to Denver and, once again, Julesburg was re-established several miles east of "Denver Junction." Throughout all these moves, the name prevailed, with the fourth and final location simply called Julesburg.

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Chappell, NE

The town of Chappell is named for Charles Henry Chappell, an Illinois railroad construction engineer who was largely responsible for building the train depot in the town. When lumber, rails and other supplies were sent from Omaha to this area, the instructions would read: "Send this to Chappell." They were, of course, referring to the man, but the town acquired the name as well.

Among the first inhabitants of Chappell in 1879 were Union Pacific Section Foreman Henry D. Wolf and his family. The town was platted and registered five years later. Soon after, development began in earnest as folks were able to purchase land lots ranging in price from $4 to $20 apiece. Interestingly, Chappell wasn't incorporated as a village — the first in Deuel County — until Sept. 10, 1907, more than two decades after it was first established.

While Chappell has its roots in the very early days of the Wild West, saloons didn't play a big role in its history. An early saloon didn't stay open for very long. Still, alcoholic beverages were popular, with most being served in curtained-off corners of the local drug stores. One early story tells of the time two cowboys from the Box J. Ranch in Colorado visited Chappell. The men drank a bit too much and decided to shoot up the town. The city fathers quickly ushered them out and ended any chance for Chappell to become the "Wildest town in the West."

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Sidney, NE

Union Pacific reached Sidney on August 10, 1867, and was instrumental in the development of the city. The city was named for Sidney Dillon, a Union Pacific employee who rose to become company president in 1874. The military established Sidney Barracks on Dec. 12, 1867, in response to frequent skirmishes between Native Americans and railroad workers. The barracks were a sub-post of Fort Sedgwick located in the Colorado Territory. The town was officially incorporated on Oct. 8, 1884.

The first settlers in Sidney that weren't connected to the railroad were Charles and Jim Moore, Dennis Carrigan and Tom Kane. The Moores were ranchers before the railroad came through, and when Sidney was established Charles built a hotel and general store. Carrigan and Kane also operated general stores, and Carrigan built and operated the town's first saloon.

In the 1870s, Fort Sidney became a major strategic point as the first supply depot on the 267-mile Sidney-Blackhills Trail. According to reports at the time, the route allowed military and civilian traffic to reach Fort Robinson, Red Cloud Indian Agency, Deadwood, South Dakota and the Black Hills gold fields. By 1875, the fort contained living quarters for the military, a hospital, guardhouse, bakery, laundry, stables and other structures.

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Northern CheyenneTraditional Pawnee pattern

The railroad's arrival and Western settlement expansion caused great changes in the Native American communities calling this region home for thousands of years. These communities endured great upheaval, surviving in spite of harsh conditions and a changing cultural landscape. This is their story, as told by Tribal members.

While the Union Pacific Railroad established a greater network for commerce, settlement and communication during the westward expansion era, it also further contributed to the eventual demise of the freedom of plains tribes to live as they did from time immemorial.

The Cheyenne nation consisted of 10 bands who followed their coveted lifeline, the buffalo, or hotóá'e and ésevone as the Cheyenne call them. The buffalo's yearly migration routes allowed the bands to visit the familiar places they called home. The railroad impacted not only the Cheyenne nation, but all the tribes within the Great Plains. Tribes on the plains lost access to the abundant resources needed for subsistence, cultural and social continuity, and ceremonial gatherings.

The railroad expanded across the states of Nebraska, Kansas and Wyoming, increasing tensions between the Cheyenne and the United States government. The broken promises of the Horse Creek Treaty of 1851, the Fort Wise Treaty of 1861 and the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864 resulted in a deep disdain of the federal government. Resistance to the railroad from continued Euro-American expansion came to a head when settlers trespassed onto protected Cheyenne treaty lands.

Various written and oral stories contributed to the knowledge of the Cheyenne people and their opposition to the Union Pacific Railroad. Today, the Cheyenne people still remember and celebrate the courageous acts by groups such as the Dog Soldiers, led by Roman Nose and Tall Bull, and other individuals who led war campaigns that derailed trains and dismantled railroads. Such efforts were done out of love for their way of life and for the protection of their people.

While such acts were viewed by the American society as savagery and futile resistance to the impeding Euro-American settlement and eventually reservation life, resistance to westward expansion proved that they were only doing what they had to do in order for the entire Cheyenne Nation to protect what was and has always been theirs, the land.

The Cheyenne and other tribes view the land as more than an economic driver in the form of extraction, but as a living, holistic landscape. Without a heartfelt connection to the land and all that is sacred to our being, the Cheyenne would not have fought and resisted the railroad with such conviction and determination.

Authored by: Teanna Limpy
Tribal Historic Preservation Officer, Northern Cheyenne

Kimball, NE

Like many towns in Nebraska and on the plains, Kimball owes its founding and early development to Union Pacific establishing a water stop for their steam locomotives. On August 29, 1867, the railroad's tracks came through the area, followed by settlers who began to call the town home.

Among them was Union Pacific Section Foreman James Lynch, his wife, Mary, and their family. Mary cajoled the railroad and several section workers who boarded with the family to find her a building, a teacher and money to start a school for her children.

Interestingly, Kimball was originally called Antelope and later in 1874, Antelopeville because of the prevalence of antelope in the area. By this time there were a few adobe shacks to house the railroad's section hands and larger houses for other railroad workers, including the Lynches.

The first post office was established in 1877, but another post office to the east, also called Antelope, caused a bit of confusion. Citizens petitioned to change the town's name and in 1885, one year after the town was platted, the request was granted. The name was changed to Kimball, after Thomas Lord Kimball, a vice president of Union Pacific.

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Cheyenne, WY

Though it's the capitol of Wyoming today, Cheyenne began as part of the homeland for the indigenous Cheyenne Tribe, and was an early campsite for the U.S. Army. In 1865, U.S. Army Major Gen. Grenville M. Dodge and his troops were charged with finding a railroad route over the Laramie Mountains. Two years later, Dodge became the chief engineer for Union Pacific Railroad and established a terminal town there. He named it Cheyenne after a local area tribe.

Union Pacific rail crews reached Cheyenne, dubbed "The Magic City of the Plains," Nov. 13, 1867. Lots that earlier sold for just $150 soon skyrocketed to $2,500 because of the promise and potential the railroad instilled in the city. Its population grew by leaps and bounds, augmented by inhabitants of the infamous "Hell on Wheels" town that had left Julesburg, Colorado, and set up shop in Cheyenne. From a population of just 400 in August 1867, the town boasted more than 4,000 inhabitants by the end of 1867.

Within a year Cheyenne was a thriving city. More than 300 businesses were operating and the town could boast of its share of lawyers, engineers, artists and hunters. While never rivaling Denver in size, Cheyenne remained important to Union Pacific and to Wyoming. On July 10, 1890, Wyoming became a state, and Cheyenne its capital. A second main line track was constructed in 1900. Today, Cheyenne houses Union Pacific's historic steam locomotive program.

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Laramie, WY

Union Pacific was making plans to have its tracks run across the Laramie Plains as early as 1864. The railroad went up and over the mountains from Cheyenne and reached Laramie May 4, 1868. Scheduled passenger service soon followed on June 7. The town was named for Jacques La Ramie, a trapper for the American Fur Company.

Similar to other towns in southern Wyoming, Laramie was designated an "end of tracks" town. As the tracks came through, folks would put up tent houses and log buildings. By the time the first trains came through, there would be a substantial number of residents.

By 1869, Laramie had a school, churches and stores, and the area was proving excellent for cattle and sheep ranching. Other industries developed over the years included mills for railroad rails, a brickyard, slaughter house, a brewery, a glass-blowing plant and a plaster mill. Pacific Fruit Express had an ice-storing plant in Laramie, filled with ice carved from local lakes. The ice would be loaded onto train fruit cars to keep produce fresh as it traveled to market. According to an early town history, Laramie also was one of the first small towns west of the Mississippi to have a power plant. It was built in 1886 and provided electricity to individuals and local businesses.

The area, once part of the Dakota Territory, was organized as Wyoming Territory in 1869. In December of that year the legislative assembly passed a general women's suffrage bill allowing Wyoming to become the first place in the United States where women could vote in every election. In 1870, a 70-year-old Laramie resident, Mrs. Swain, became the first woman to vote in a general election. In that same year, Laramie had the first jury on which women were allowed to serve.

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Hanna, WY

As Union Pacific continued its path westward, particular towns played a different role in the railroad's growth. Hanna was one of them. First seen as a coal deposit by explorers in the 1840s, the region had 160 homes, a boarding house and two active mines by 1861. Reached by the railroad in 1868, coal to fuel locomotives would become important to Union Pacific as the railroad progressed through the wood-poor plains.

In 1888, 20 years after Union Pacific laid tracks there, Mark A. Hanna, a Cleveland, Ohio-based coal and shipping magnate, met with Union Pacific officials and convinced them that the railroad's future was inextricably tied to coal fields in the area.

Two years later in 1890, the Union Pacific Coal Company brought its first mine into production in Hanna — named after businessman Mark Hanna — and would open six in total by 1954. Hanna was a company town, and its coal miners and their families were defined by the industry. For instance, the treeless flood plain near the No. 1 Mine was simply called "One Town." As mines were added, new villages popped up, and so did the accompanying "Two Town" and "Three Town."

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Rawlins, WY

Carbon County, Wyoming — where Rawlins is located — owes much of its early history to Union Pacific. The railroad gave names to places as it laid its tracks westward and over the Rocky Mountains to build the transcontinental railroad.

Rawlins was among those places. In 1867, Civil War Gen. John Aaron Rawlins was put in charge of protecting the crew surveying the route. According to the history of Rawlins, the general asked for a drink of good, cold water. His men explored the countryside and came upon a spring. When they brought the water back to him, Rawlins declared that it was the most refreshing drink he had ever tasted, and reportedly exclaimed, "If anything is ever named after me, I hope it will be a spring of water."

Gen. Grenville Dodge, Union Pacific's chief engineer, named the water source Rawlins Springs, and the community that formed around it bore the same name. The following year, on Aug. 8, 1868, Union Pacific came through Rawlins Springs on its way west. It became a distribution and supply point for extensive oil and gas fields, sheep and cattle ranches, coal mines and quarries. The name eventually was shortened to Rawlins. The town was incorporated in 1886 and designated the seat of Carbon County.

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Rock Springs, WY

Rock Springs was founded in 1850 when the federal government established an Overland Stage station near a large spring flowing from the rocks. Union Pacific reached the town in August 1868, and development took off in earnest.

Because of a scarcity of wood on the Union Pacific system, the railroad needed an alternative source of energy to run trains. Since coal was abundant in Rock Springs, Union Pacific developed the mines there to feed its locomotives. Thus, Rock Springs became an important early center for this resource and was critical to the railroad's completion.

A good number of the coal miners in Rock Springs were Chinese. They, along with many other Chinese immigrants, had come to the U.S. attracted by opportunities afforded by the Gold Rush and building the transcontinental railroad. This influx would eventually lead to the passing of legislation in 1882 that would prohibit or severely curtail immigration of Chinese laborers into the U.S. until 1943.

While in the early years Chinese and white miners were able to work side by side, eventually tensions began to emerge. The Chinese workers did not have their families with them, which kept their expenses low. As a result, they were willing to work for lower wages. The white miners believed this depressed wages for everyone, and began to resent the Chinese workers.

On Sept. 2, 1885, bad feelings boiled over and a fight broke out between white and Chinese miners in the No. 6 mine in Rock Springs. A Chinese miner was killed and another badly beaten. A foreman broke up the attack, but the white miners were not to be calmed. According to a history of Rock Springs, they went home, gathered guns, hatchets and other weapons, and surrounded the part of town known simply as Chinatown, where the Chinese miners lived. When the violence ended the next day, 28 Chinese miners were dead, 15 wounded and all 79 shacks and houses in Chinatown looted and burned. In the immediate aftermath, federal troops moved in to prevent further violence against the Chinese and ended up staying 13 years. Despite this conflict, tensions eventually eased and work continued. Union Pacific closed the mine in 1953.

Over the decades, the Chinese began leaving Wyoming, but their presence was felt for many years. In fact, a Chinese flag, ornately embroidered in gold with dragon, koi and cloud motifs, was proudly displayed at many of the Rock Springs parades and festivals in the 1880s hosted by Chinese employees of the Union Pacific Coal Company. Decades later, when the coal company wanted to display the flag in its museum, a retired coal worker named Leo Chee reportedly returned to China in search of a similar flag, and in 1930 sent it to company's offices in Rock Springs. It's unclear whether the flag in Union Pacific's possession is the original from the 1880s or a copy obtained by Chee, but there's no question the flag is testament to the historic loyalty and diversity of Union Pacific's employees.

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Green River, WY

Union Pacific's impact on Green River was huge, but in its earliest days far from certain. The railroad originally planned to build a switching station, including a railroad yard and roundhouse, at the town site, but chose instead to establish the switching point 13 miles west in Bryan, Wyoming, near the Black's Fork of the Green River. Union Pacific didn't own the land in Green River and thought better of building its switching yard there.

The railroad arrived on October 1, 1868, when tracks were laid through Green River. When construction moved west to Bryan, Green River's population shriveled. Gold discoveries in the late 1860s nearly 100 miles northeast on South Pass further reduced the importance of Green River as a commerce center. Bryan to the west and Point of Rocks — a jumping-off point and stage station on the railroad to the east — competed to supply the miners. At the same time, South Pass City, located near the gold diggings, became the county seat.

Green River's fate changed once again in 1872, rescuing it from becoming a ghost town. A severe drought dried up the Black's Fork River, making Bryan untenable as a switching station. Early settler and entrepreneur S.I. Field and representatives from Union Pacific came to an agreement about using parts of Green River for the railroad facilities.

Commerce and life returned to the abandoned buildings. The roundhouse was moved from Bryan to its new home, and construction began anew. People worldwide came to Green River to work on and around the railroad. Among them was a 14-year-old boy who swept the depot's floors who would retire more than 40 years later as stationmaster, and a machinist who spent his entire working life in the same Green River shops after coming home from World War II.

As railroad operations increased, Green River grew in importance. Its rail yard eventually became one of the busiest in the nation, making Green River truly a Union Pacific town.

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Evanston, WY

When Union Pacific tracks came through the area in 1868, the railroad's chief engineer, Grenville Dodge, decided to name the town after James A. Evans. He was the surveyor who marked the eastern half of the railroad's route through Wyoming.

One of Evanston's first commercial enterprises was a large tent erected in 1868 by a local businessman named Harvey Booth. The structure served as a saloon, restaurant and hotel. However, it wasn't until the early 1870s that Evanston's development really got underway. That was when Union Pacific selected the town as the locomotive service and crew division point between Ogden, Utah, and Green River, Wyoming. The following year, the railroad built a 20-stall stone roundhouse north of the town's center to service locomotives. It substantially boosted employment in the area. In addition to the train crews and workers at the roundhouse, Union Pacific hired section crews responsible for maintaining and repairing sections of the track and rights of way.

Some of the earliest residents of Evanston were the Chinese laborers who worked on section crews and toiled as coal miners at Union Pacific's nearby mines. In addition to working on the railroad, many opened businesses such as laundries and groceries, or grew and sold vegetables from their small farms. In 1874, the Chinese built a beautiful temple of worship called the Joss House by white residents. It eventually was destroyed by a fire in 1922, but a pair of carved wooden panels from the original structure remains on display in the Chinese Joss House Museum in Evanston.

By 1926, the roundhouse complex was changed to the Evanston Reclamation, Repair and Manufacturing Plant. During the war years, the facility employed more than 200 people — sizeable considering the town's population was about 3,600 at the time. Over the next three decades, employment began to dwindle as diesel-electric power replaced steam in locomotives. In 1971, when the number of employees had dropped to about 50, Union Pacific closed the complex.

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Uintah, UT

As early as 1850, eight Mormon families settled at a point along the Weber River that became known as East Weber. Soon, other families settled in the area, and farming began with the construction of the Pioneer Canal.

It was expected that East Weber would develop into an important area. To prepare, a town was laid out, with land divided into blocks, lots and streets running at right angles. A log schoolhouse was built, and in 1854 a fort with massive dirt walls was constructed to protect residents from Native Americans. This fort served as the center of the community and was used until 1868, when it was torn down to be used as railroad grade fill.

With the coming of the Union Pacific Railroad through Weber Canyon, the town of Easton quickly became a raucous boomtown with more than 100 businesses and a population of more than 5,000. At its peak, there were more than 20 saloons, grocery and dry goods stores, meat markets, hotels and restaurants. Union Pacific constructed a railroad station in 1869 originally called Deseret, but soon changed to Uintah. To avoid the confusion of having a railroad station and post office named Uintah in a town called Easton, the whole area was renamed Uintah. Uintah is named after the Weber Ute Band of Shoshoni that occupied the area at the time of white settlement.

In 1872, the Utah Central Railroad was opened between Salt Lake City and Ogden, and Uintah's boom period ended. Residents, business owners and freighters relocated to other towns seemingly overnight and the area was left to farmers. Although Uintah continued on with agriculture — and a branch of the Mormon Church constructed a building there — population grew little over the next three decades.

A local tradition started by the Boy Scouts in 1923 still carries on today. A Uintah schoolteacher named Golden Kilburn, who organized the troop, outlined their first big project: Build a big block letter "U." When the project turned out to be too much for the Scouts, the town took it over. It has been tradition for residents to turn out when school is finished in the spring to whitewash the "U." This town celebration is known as "U-Day."

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Ogden, UT

Union Pacific Railroad reached Ogden March 7, 1869, after workers blasted frozen ground for the right of way, dug tunnels and erected soaring bridges over the Weber River. Prior to the railroad's arrival, Ogden was just a small settlement with a fort purchased by Captain James Brown, a Mormon representative, who named it Brownsville. In 1850, the community name was changed to Ogden, honoring Peter Skene Ogden, a brigade leader for the Hudson Bay Company.

With Union Pacific's presence, Ogden flourished into a major railroad town with nine different rail systems. The area's vast fertile land enabled farms to grow an abundance of different crops. The government located four federal offices within a 10-mile radius of Ogden, employing a great number of both government and civilian workers.

In December 1869 — just seven months after the railheads of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads met at Promontory Summit, Utah — Ogden replaced Promontory Summit as the junction of the two railroads.

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Salt Lake City, UT

When the Union Pacific Railroad originally built west to meet the Central Pacific at Promontory Summit, Utah, the rail line west of Ogden passed around the north end of the Great Salt Lake, by-passing Salt Lake City by 37 miles. Brigham Young, the Mormon leader who helped found the city in 1847, foresaw the positive impact the railroad would have on the region and wanted it built through his city.

After representatives of both railroads explained the difficulty and extra expense of a route through Salt Lake City, Young accepted the decision, but arranged to build a railroad south from a junction with Union Pacific at Ogden, to Salt Lake City. The Utah Central, as this railroad was named, began construction one week after the driving of the Golden Spike at Promontory Summit on May 10, 1869, and was completed on Jan. 1, 1870.

The transcontinental railroad's completion was a joyous event in Salt Lake City. A local paper at time reported that the "streets were crowded with the people, old and young, male and female, all of whom are joyous at the greatest event of the age." Indeed, Union Pacific was the first of the major railroads to successfully build within Utah's borders. Some 20 years later, the company had become the largest railroad in the territory. In 1908, construction of a passenger station began, and in 1910 the Union Passenger Station was opened.

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Corinne, UT

In March 1869, real estate speculators, gambling sharks and promoters helped launch Corinne as the shipping, trading and amusement center of the Rocky Mountain region. There are several versions of how the town came to adopt its elegant name. One story claims it was named after Corinne LaVaunt, a well-known actress at the time. Another story says it took its name from the daughter of Gen. J.W. Williamson, land agent for Union Pacific Railroad and temporary mayor of the town until it was incorporated and chartered on Feb. 18, 1870.

Corinne was designed to be the freight-transfer point for shipment of goods and supplies to mining towns of western Montana along the Montana Trail to the north. The town's roads were made of slag, a product left over during the smelting process involved with mining. The roads were built this way to overcome the original roads made from muddy clay. The slag contained gold, but alas, it was not removable at the time. Current residents of Corinne — which number just under 700 — have a box where they collect gold-flecked pebbles that have been gathered over the years.

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Promontory Summit, UT

Of all the events that helped shape our nation in the 19th century, few surpassed the importance of what took place on May 10, 1869. On that day, the dream of a transcontinental railroad became a reality when the railheads of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads finally met at Promontory Summit, Utah. The event — marked by the driving of a golden spike to complete the line — brought to a finish a grueling 7-year journey that began when President Abraham Lincoln signed into law the Pacific Railroad Act on July 1, 1862.

The path to the Summit was hard-fought, perilous and competitive. In late April 1869, the Central Pacific, with teams of Irish and Chinese workers, set a record for laying 10 miles and 56 feet of track in 12 hours at Rozel, Utah. This accomplishment began as a bet with the Union Pacific, whose men had once laid seven miles of track in one stretch (although they had reportedly worked from 4 a.m. to midnight to complete the task, well beyond a regular day's work). At the time, the San Francisco Bulletin called the feat "the greatest work in track laying ever accomplished or conceived by railroad men." A top-ranking Army commander, who was watching the workers' progress with his soldiers, commented that he had never seen such organization, and that "it was just like an army marching over the ground and leaving the track built behind them."

Despite plenty of time to determine a meeting place, it was just a mere month before completion that Congress had finally passed a joint resolution naming Promontory Summit the place "at which rails shall meet and form one continuous line." The name was taken from the large promontory projecting south into the Great Salt Lake. By early May, Union Pacific crews had laid the final track from Corinne, Utah, to the Summit. Railroad officials, workers and citizens were ready for a celebration. The ceremony, however, was postponed for a few extra days due to wet weather, a washed-out bridge and a revolt by unpaid Union Pacific railroad workers who threatened to kidnap the company's vice president, Thomas Durant (a scheme possibly orchestrated by Durant himself.)

But on May 10, the rails did meet and a country was united coast to coast. Scores of dignitaries, railroad executives, and journalists witnessed the momentous event. The Daily Alta California, a 19th-century San Francisco newspaper, wrote the following day: "In the face of natural obstacles of the most forbidding character, the shores of the Atlantic and the Pacific are at last practically united by an iron highway spanning the continent...From henceforth we are in the Union and of it, and the great event of the age has brought us all home at last."

Today, Promontory Summit is the home of the Golden Spike National Historic Monument. In 1870, this original junction point for Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads was moved to nearby Ogden. Promontory became primarily a helper station, housing mostly railroad workers and their families.

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Central Pacific Engine

Central Pacific Sacramento, California